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Mouse Skin Microsomes & S9 Fraction for Preclinical Drug Development

Many drug-metabolizing enzymes of the liver and other internal organs are also expressed in the skin. While skin possesses a wide variety of metabolic enzymes, specific enzymatic activity is typically less than 10% of that found in the liver. However, skin plays a significant role in the biotransformation of transdermal xenobiotics. We offer pooled skin S9 fractions prepared from dorsal full-thickness skin tissue of male CD-1 mice and International Genetic Standard (IGS) Sprague-Dawley rat.

S9 fraction is a mixture of microsomes and cytosol containing a wide variety of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is commonly used as a preferred test system in several in vitro ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) studies, including phase I and phase II metabolism.

Skin microsomes are supplied in 250 mM sucrose buffer. S9 fractions are supplied in 50 mM TRIS-HCI, (pH 7.4 at 4ºC) containing 150 mM KCI and 2 mM EDTA.

Make sure your microsomes and S9 fractions are properly activated

For best results from assays using microsomes and S9 fractions, we recommend using NADPH regeneration to support high metabolism levels by ensuring that the NADPH levels are not a limiting factor in your incubations. Our preferred system, RapidStartTM, uses an enzymatic reaction that converts NADP to NADPH, which is then used as a cofactor by CYPs and oxidized back to NADP, and the cycle continues ensuring stable NADPH levels throughout the incubation. RapidStartTM NADPH regeneration is easily activated by simply adding water. Our easy-to-use formula is the most convenient and flexible NADPH regenerating system you’ll find, allowing users to easily tailor the system’s capability by simply varying the amount of water added. RapidStartTM is perfect for long- and short-term incubations and supports the function of recombinant enzymes and subcellular fractions, allowing you to achieve the most accurate and reliable data during your in vitro assays.

Don’t see what you need? Other preparations can be made available!

If you require subcellular test systems not available through our standard product offerings, Custom Subcellular Preparations can be easily ordered to meet the specific needs of your study.

Our designated Custom Products team regularly prepares and isolates cells and/or subcellular fractions from more than 45 different species and has capabilities to meet unique needs that are unavailable through most vendors– non-standard rodent strains, farm animals, insects, precarious tissue isolations such as adrenal gland or jejunum. Our specialists can carry out over 40 characterization assays, providing the end user with a good foundation for their DMPK assays. See our Custom Products page for examples of past custom preparations or get in touch with a specialist to find out how we can meet your needs.

Isolation of rabbit liver microsomes: Tissue > Homogenate > S9 > Cytosol > Microsomes

Access more details about extrahepatic subcellular fraction preparations

For information about animal cell fraction preparation and characterization details such as marker substrate reaction, please refer to our downloadable Product Technology Guide (Animal Subcellular Fractions, page 35)

Custom Hepatocytes Species

Find more information about Subcellular Fractions

Access more details about our capabilities, characterization of subcellular fractions, safety, handling and storage, and more

In vitro pipette test article treatment