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test systems

Human Skin S9 Fraction

Many drug-metabolizing enzymes of the liver and other internal organs are also expressed in the skin. While skin possesses a wide variety of metabolic enzymes, specific enzymatic activity is typically less than 10% of that found in the liver. However, skin plays a significant role in the biotransformation of transdermal xenobiotics. We offerHuman skin S9 fractions prepared from dermatome skin tissue.

S9 fraction is a mixture of microsomes and cytosol containing a wide variety of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is commonly used as a preferred test system in several in vitro ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) studies, including investigation of phase I and phase II metabolism.

S9 fractions are supplied at a concentration of 20 mg/mL, in 50 mM TRIS-HCI, (pH 7.4 at 4ºC) containing 150 mM KCI and 2 mM EDTA.

Make sure your S9 fractions are properly activated

For best results from assays using microsomes and S9 fractions, we recommend using NADPH regeneration to support high metabolism levels by ensuring that the NADPH levels are not a limiting factor in your incubations. Our preferred system, RapidStartTM, uses an enzymatic reaction that converts NADP to NADPH, which is then used as a cofactor by CYPs and oxidized back to NADP, and the cycle continues ensuring stable NADPH levels throughout the incubation. RapidStartTM NADPH regeneration is easily activated by simply adding water. Our easy-to-use formula is the most convenient and flexible NADPH regenerating system you’ll find, allowing users to easily tailor the system’s capability by simply varying the amount of water added. RapidStartTM is perfect for long- and short-term incubations and supports the function of recombinant enzymes and subcellular fractions, allowing you to achieve the most accurate and reliable data during your in vitro assays.

Don’t see what you need? Other preparations can be made available!

If you require human cell fractions outside of what we carry as standard inventory, custom subcellular fractions can be easily ordered to meet the specific needs of your study. Capabilities include extensive characterization assays, donor pools customized to meet specific disease-state or demographic criteria, as well as alternative options for buffer and/or protein concentration. Our highly experienced team can also prepare fractions using protocols sourced by the customers or create a tailored protocol to satisfy special requests. See our Custom Products page for examples of past custom preparations or get in touch with a specialist to find out how we can meet your needs.

Access more details about extrahepatic subcellular fraction preparations

For more information about how our product specialists ensure quality inHuman kidney subcellular preparations, as well as enzyme activity characterization assays, refer to pages 79-85 in our Product Tech Guide

Custom Hepatocytes Species

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Centrifuged subcellular fractions for in vitro testing